The Attribution of Prophetic Events to the Day of ʿĀshūrā

[I found this somewhat unfinished research on my computer. Seeing as today is the 10th of Muḥarram, or ʿĀshūrā, I thought it would be useful to students of knowledge to post whatever research I had gathered to date on the authenticity of the attribution of certain  prophetic events to this day. Interestingly enough, the 10th of Muḥarram (or possibly the 11th) was the day I was reported to have been born.]

Question

This last Friday, I heard many things about ʿĀshūrā that I’d never heard before. The khatib said that in addition to Mūsā and his people being saved on ʿĀshūrā that it was also the day that Yūnus was saved from the whale, Yūsuf was saved from the well, Nūḥ was saved from the flood, that Ibrāhīm was born on this day, and that Rasūl Allāh (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa sallam) was granted special forgiveness, and some other things I don’t remember. I had never heard these things before, so I was wondering if they were true. Please respond at your convenience. (edited)

Reply

Many of the historical events that are attached to the 10th of Muḥarram are not substantiated by the prophetic tradition. Some have been transmitted in commentaries of hadith works but without a chain of narrators that can establish their reliability. Others are quoted through chains that end with Successors and are likely taken from Judeo-Christian traditions, sources that at best are potentially true but still not substantiated by historical sources that can establish the Sunnah. Below, I have attempted to shed some light on specific claims about the day of ʿĀshūrā in light of the research of expert traditionists.

Under the discussion of the origins of the word ʿĀshūrā, Imam Badr al-Dīn al-ʿAynī mentions that some people claim that the day of ʿĀshūrā is special because on it Allah honored ten (ʿasharah) prophets. However, here no reference is provided for this claim. (al-ʿAynī, ʿUmdat al-Qārī, 8:233)

Similarly, in his commentary on Imam Mālik’s al-Muwaṭṭā, Shaykh al-Ḥadīth Muḥammad Zakariyyā al-Kāndhalwī mentions that Ibn Raslān relates the same opinion from Imam al-Mundhirī, again without a source chain. (al-Kāndhalwī, Awjaz al-Masālik, 5:185) Al-ʿAynī provides additional details for this claim:

“It is said that [the reason the tenth day of Muḥarram is called ʿĀshūrāʾ] is because Allah the Exalted dignified ten prophets, upon them be peace, with ten karāmahs [on it]. The first is Mūsā, upon him be peace, who was given (divine) aid on this day. The sea was split for him and Firʿawn and his army were caused to drown. The second is Nūḥ, upon him be peace, whose ark settled upon the mount of Jūdī on this day. The third is Yūnus, upon him be peace, who was saved from the belly of the whale. The fourth is that Allah accepted the repentance of Ādam, upon him be peace, as ʿIkrimah states. The fifth is Yūsuf, upon him be peace, who was removed from the well on this day. The sixth is ʿĪsā, upon him be peace, who was born on this day and raised (to the Heavens) on it. The seventh is Dāwūd, upon him be peace, who Allah forgave on this day. The eight is Ibrāhīm, upon him be peace, who was born on it. The ninth is Yaʿqūb, upon him be peace, whose sight was returned to him on this day. The tenth is our prophet Muḥammad, upon him blessings and peace, who was forgiven everything that preceded and everything to follow on it.

As such they have mentioned ten of the prophets. I [‘Ayni] say, ‘Some have also mentioned amongst the ten Idrīs, upon him be peace, for he was raised to some place in the sky, and Ayyūb, upon him be peace, whose difficulty was lifted on this day, and Sulaymān, upon him be peace, who was given kingdom on it.’” (al-ʿAynī, ʿUmdat al-Qārī, 8:233)

Mawlānā Faḍl al-Raḥmān al-Aʿẓamī, a leading authority in hadith today, includes amongst “the famous virtues of the day of ʿĀshūrā that are all fabrications” the claims that the repentance of Ādam was accepted, or that the ark of Nūḥ settled on Mount Jūdī, or that Ibrāhīm was saved from the fire, or that Allāh sent the ram to be sacrificed in place of Ismāʿīl, or that Yūsuf was returned to his father Yaʿqūb (upon all of them be peace) all on this day.

Al-Aʿẓamī, whose thorough research on this issue has been published in the form of a booklet entitled Muharram and Ashura: Virtues and Laws, states:

“Shāh ʿAbd al-Ḥaqq al-Muḥaddith al-Dihlawī (may Allah have mercy on him) has quoted another narration [on the topic of ʿĀshūrā] which ʿAlī ibn Muḥammad al-ʿArrāq (may Allah have mercy on him) has classified as fabricated.

The fabricated narration states that the person who fasts on the day of ʿĀshūrā will receive the reward of fasting for sixty years and for standing in prayer for sixty years. In addition, he will receive the reward of ten thousand angels and the reward of a thousand people performing ḥajj and ʿumrah. He will also receive the reward of ten thousand martyrs together with all the rewards of the seven heavens.

This fabricated narration also states that the person who feeds a hungry person on the day of ʿĀshūrā will receive the reward of feeding every poor person from the ummah of Muḥammad (upon him blessings and peace) to his fill.

Furthermore, it states that the person who on this day places his hand on the head of an orphan will have his status in Jannah raised by a degree for every strand of the orphan’s hair that falls beneath his hand.

The other false impressions that the fabrication creates is that Allah brought creation into existence on the day of ʿĀshūrā, including the heavens, the earth, the Pen, the Protected Tablet, Jibrāʾīl, Mīkāʾīl, and Ādam (upon them be peace).

It also states that Ibrāhīm (upon him be peace) was born on this day, and that he was rescued from the fire on this day, that the ram was sent in place of Ismāʿīl on this day, that Firʿawn was drowned on this day, that Idrīs was raised to the heavens on this day, and that Ādam’s repentance was accepted on this day [Note that Ibn Rajab quotes statements of two Successors and Ibn ʿAbbās to support this point, which will be discussed later].

Moreover, it states that Dāwūd (upon him be peace) was forgiven on this day, that Allah focuses His attention to His Throne on this day, and that Qiyāmah shall take place on this day. ʿAllāmah Ibn al-Jawzī (may Allah have mercy on him) states that this hadith was forged by a person called Ḥabīb ibn Abī Ḥabīb and was attributed to ʿAbdullāh ibn ʿAbbās (may Allah be pleased with them).” (al-Dihlawī, Mā Thabata bi-l-Sunnah, from al-Aʿzamī, Muharram and Ashura: Virtues and Laws, p. 20)

Al-Aʿzamī further adds:

“After mentioning all of the above, Shāh ʿAbd al-Ḥaqq (may Allah have mercy on him) observes another fabrication. This fabrication states that on this day Yūsuf (upon him be peace) was freed from prison, Yaʿqūb’s (upon him be peace) eyesight was restored, Ayyūb (upon him be peace) was cured, and Yūnus (upon him be peace) was removed from the belly of the fish.

It also states that on this day the past and future mistakes of the Messenger of Allah (upon him be blessings and peace) were forgiven, the repentance of Yūnus’s (upon him be peace) nation was accepted and the first rains fell.

Moreover, the (fabricated) narration states that the person who fasts on this day will be rewarded like the one who fasts all the time, and the person who stands in worship during the night preceding the day of ʿĀshūrā will receive the reward of the worship of everything within the seven heavens.

Furthermore, it states that all the prophets fasted on this day and that fifty years of a person’s future sins and fifty years of his past sins will be forgiven if on this day he performs four rakaʿah of ṣalāt and recites Sūrat al-Fātiḥah once, followed by Sūrat al-Ikhlās fifty times in every rakaʿah. In addition, the narration states that such a person will have a thousand pulpits of celestial light (nūr) erected for him in the highest echelons of the heavens.

It also asserts that the person who gives a single sip to another to drink on this day, his status will be like one who has not disobeyed Allah for even a moment as brief as the blink of an eye. It states also that one who feeds a poor person to his fill on this day will cross the bridge of Ṣirāt at the speed of lightning.

Another concocted detail of this “hadith” includes that a person who gives charity on this day is like one who never refuses any beggar, and that someone who passes his hand over the head of an orphan will be rewarded like one who has behaved kindly to every orphan amongst mankind. In a similar fashion, the narration states that whoever visits a sick person on this day will be equal to one who has visited every sick person from amongst mankind.

ʿAllāmah Ibn al-Jawzī (may Allah have mercy on him) mentions that this narration has been fabricated without doubt, although its chain includes all reliable narrators. It is therefore obvious that whoever concocted this “hadith” attached a reliable chain of narrators to it.” (al-Dihlawī, Mā Thabata bi-l-Sunnah, 21, from al-Aʿzamī, Muharram, 21]

The Musnad of Imam Aḥmad b. Ḥanbal does contain a hadith of the Companion Abū Hurayrah that states, “It is the day that the ark settled on Jūdī, so Nūḥ fasted on it to show gratitude,” (Fatḥ al-Mulhim, al-ʿUthmānī 5:253) potentially indicative of the validity of the attribution of this particular event to the day of ʿĀshūrā. Similarly, it is mentioned in Ibn Rajab’s Laṭāʾif al-Maʿārif p. 103: “In the Musnad al-Imam Ahmad it is mentioned on the authority of Abu Jaʿfar that ʿAbd al-Ṣamad informed him from his father from Shubayl from Abū Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) that he said, “The Prophet, upon him blessings and peace, once passed by a group of Jews who had fasted the day of ʿĀshūrā. He remarked, ‘What fast is this?’ They said, ‘This is the day that Allah saved Musa, upon him be peace, and Banū Isrāʾīl from drowning, and on it He drowned Firʿawn. This is also the day on which the ark settled on Jūdī. Therefore, Nūḥ and Mūsā, upon them be peace, fasted out of gratitude to Allah the Exalted and Honored. The Prophet, upon him blessings and peace, then stated, ‘I have more right to Mūsā and more right to the fast of this day.’ He thus commanded his Companions to fast.” (Aḥmad 14:334-335) Shu‘ayb al-Arnāʾūt, however, notes, that the chain of the narration is weak due to the weakness of ʿAbd al-Samad ibn Ḥabīb and the fact that his father is unknown. Further, the portion of the hadith that speaks of Nūḥ, upon him be peace, he claims, is nowhere corroborated. The portion of the hadith, therefore, that mentions that the day of ʿĀshūrā is the day that the ark of Nuh settled on Judi and that Nuh (upon him be peace) therefore fasted on the day out of gratitude is da‘if.

Lastly, a narration in Muṣannaf ʿAbd al-Razzāq (4:290-291, Al-Majlis al-ʿIlmī: Karachi) reads: “ʿAbd al-Razzāq informed us that Maʿmar reported from Qatādah that he said: ‘Nūḥ boarded the ark with ten days left in Rajab and descended from the ark on the day of ʿĀshūrā.’”  The editor of the Musannaf, ʿAllāmah Ḥabīb al-Raḥmān al-Aʿzamī, notes: “In a hadith of al-Ṭabarānī it is mentioned, ‘In Rajab, Allah carried Nūḥ in the ark…and so the ark sailed for seven months, the end of which was the day of ʿĀshūrā.’ Haythami remarks (on this hadith), ‘It contains ʿAbd al-Ghafūr, and he is matrūk (abandoned).’ (3:188)”

 

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ʿAllāmah al-Kawtharī’s List of Ḥanafī Hadith Masters

The following list a selection from notes that were compiled for one of the appendices to the forthcoming (in shā Allāh) translation of Imam ʿAbd al-Ḥaqq al-Dihlawī’s Muqaddamah fī Uṣūl al-Ḥadīth. The list has had to be refined, edited, and truncated for publishing purposes. I thought the rough notes would still benefit certain interested readers, so I have produced a portion of them below. Readers should note that spellings, dates, etc… are being revised and are not yet reflected in this post:

Shāh ʿAbd al-Ḥaqq al-Dihlawī represents an important link in a long chain of Ḥanafī hadith scholars, one that begins with Imam Abū Ḥanīfah and his students and continues to this day. The last hundred plus years, however, has born witnes to an unfortunate confusion about the status of the scholars of the Ḥanafī school of law in relation to their knowledge and prowess in the field of hadith and hadith criticism. Nearly three to four generations of Indian hadith masters have since attempted to respond to these misconceptions in the form of biographies of Ḥanafī hadith masters, rebuttals of anti-Ḥanafī and anti-taqlīd literature, voluminous commentaries on the renowned hadith collections, etc…

The late Ottoman polymath, Imam Muḥammad Zāhid al-Kawtharī offered his own refutation of the misunderstandings about the Ḥanafī school in a now well-recognized treatise entitled Fiqh Ahl al-ʿIrāq wa Ḥadīthuhum, which concludes with a list of one hundred and ten hadith masters from amongst Abū Ḥanīfah’s students and adherents to his madhhab. The list was later extended by Imam Muḥammad Yūsuf al-Binnūrī who added 40 names to the list from amongst the Ḥanafī hadith scholars of the Indian subcontinent. We reproduce the first list below: Continue reading

Al-Biḍāʿat al-Muzjāt li man Yuṭāliʿu al-Mirqāt by Shaykh ʿAbd al-Ḥalīm al-Nuʿmānī

After a recent post in which I quoted from my ustādh’s work, I received a number of requests for the book and some feedback about its unavailability. Subsequently, I requested a colleague, Mawlana Kamil Uddin, to help me scan the 92 page work so that I could share it with others even though a new edition (likely with significant changes) is expected to be published sometime soon.

To my surprise, he not only took on the task but he completed it the same evening. May Allah reward Mawlana Kamil for his contribution and bless him in both worlds. For everyone’s benefit, below is linked Mawlana Nuʿmānī’s Al-Biḍāʿat al-Muzjāt:

Al-Biḍāʿat al-Muzjāt li man Yuṭāliʿu al-Mirqāt

A Suggested Curriculum of Study for the Hanafi Student of Hadith

In our shaykh Mawlānā ʿAbd al-Ḥalīm al-Nuʿmānī’s invaluable foreword to Mullā ʿAlī al-Qārī’s Mirqāt al-Mafātīḥ – modestly entitled al-Biḍāʿat al-Muzjāt li man Yuṭāliʿu al-Mirqāt (Scanty Merchandise for the One who Studies the Mirqāt) – the erudite hadith scholar Imam ʿAbd al-Bārī ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhāb al-Anṣārī al-Laknawī is quoted from a passage of his prolegomena to his al-Taʿlīq al-Mukhtār ʿalā Kitāb al-Āthār. In the lengthy passage, al-Laknawī provides the following suggested curriculum of study for the “Ḥanafī muḥaddith”: Continue reading

On the Validity of Backbiting in Hadith Criticism

Question:

When we talk about a specific narrator being ʿādil (upright), isn’t it backbiting to label someone a liar or a sinner? How is this justified?

Answer:

In the name of Allah, the All Merciful, the Most Mercy-giving. The act of backbiting (ghībah) as it applies to speaking unfavorably of a person who is not present is without a doubt abhorrent, repugnant, and prohibited in the sharī‘ah. Numerous verses of the Holy Qur’an as well as prophetic narrations clearly explicate the gravity of this sin, equating it even to consuming the flesh of a dead brother. Continue reading

The Solitary Report (Khabr Wāḥid) in the Ḥanafī Madhhab: Selection from an Unpublished Article

The khabar wāḥid (sometimes translated as a “solitary report”), as defined by the Ḥanafī jurists, refers to a narration that is transmitted by any number of narrators that does not reach the level of mashhūr or mutawātir. (Bazdawī 112) It may be narrated by one, two, or any other varying number of narrators at every level of the chain as long as the number does not reach the level of mashhūr.

The khabar wāḥid, or āḥād, is not necessarily a weak or strong ḥadīth, as its strength is decided by the condition of its narrators. However, regardless of the strength of its narrators and therefore the narration itself, the āḥād’s status is one that at best necessitates ʿamal (binding practice) and not ʿilm (decisive knowledge). In other words, the legal status of the āḥād is of speculative authority (dhann) and not decisive authority (qatʿ). This is the agreed-upon stance of all the Ḥanafī jurists and legal theorists. (Jaṣṣāṣ 1:551, Dabūsī 170, Sarakhsī 1:321, Bazdawī 112, Shāshī 172, Samarqandī 448, Asmandī 240-250, Khabbāzī 1:327, Ibn al-Sāʿātī 163-164, Nasafī 2:13-14, Ṣadr al-Sharīʿah 2:8, Fanārī 2:245, Mullā Khusraw 116, Bukhārī 2:678, Itqānī 5:36-37, Babirtī 4:158) Continue reading

Commentary on the Hadith of Shaytan and Eating with the Left Hand

أخبرنا مالك أخبرنا ابن شهاب عن أبي بكر  بن عبيد الله عن عبد الله بن عمر أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم قال : إذا أكل  أحدكم فليأكل بيمينه وليشرب  بيمينه فإن الشيطان  يأكل بشماله ويشرب بشماله

قال محمد : وبه نأخذ . لا ينبغي أن يأكل بشماله ولا يشرب بشماله إلا من علة

Translation:

Mālik informed us that Ibn Shihāb informed us from Abū Bakr ibn ʿUbayd Allāh from ʿAbdullāh ibn ʿUmar that the Messenger of Allah, upon him blessings and peace, said, “When any of you eat, then let him eat with his right hand and let him drink with his right hand, because shayṭān eats with his left hand and drinks with his left hand.”

Muḥammad said, “We adhere to this. One ought not to eat with one’s left hand or drink with one’s left hand unless there is good cause.” Continue reading

Reading List of Recommended English Books on the Prophetic Biography

The list of available works on the Sīrah, or prophetic biography, is almost too long to mention. I have, therefore, confined this list to English works and, then, to works that are the most useful for students of my Sirah courses (HST101: Prophetic Biography – The Makkan Era and HST102: Prophetic Biography – The Madinan Era). This list, therefore, is not meant to be exhaustive, nor is a student required to read through all of the works. In fact, I would suggest that a student choose only or two works from each sublist to read along with the in-class lectures. Continue reading

Review of Some Commentaries on Imam Tirmidhi’s al-Shama’il al-Muhammadiyyah

By the infinite mercy of Allah, I have been blessed to be able to teach the Shama’il Muhammadiyyah of Imam Tirmidhi twice in the last year and have begun to teach it again this year to students of the Dawrat al-Hadith. In the beginning of the year, students were very adamant on finding a commentary of the Shama’il that best suited their needs, in other words both relatively comprehensive and also concise.

While I suggested that the students try and benefit from all the different commentaries given that each has its own virtues and each contains discussions not included in the others, I was forced to admit that, in my humble opinion and to the limits of my knowledge, the best version that fit their needs is the famous commentary of  ‘Allamah Ibrahim ibn Muhammad al-Bajuri al-Shafi’i entitled al-Mawahib al-Ladunniyyah ‘ala al-Shama’il al-Muhammadiyyah. Continue reading